possessive adjectives

PersonMasculine SingularFeminine SingularPlural (Both Genders)
your (singular informal)tonta(ton)tes
your (plural or formal)votrevotrevos

Use of masculine form: Before feminine nouns starting with a vowel or mute h, use the masculine form for euphony.

  • mon assiette my plate
  • ton histoire your story
  • son erreur his/her mistake
  • mon autre sœur my other sister

Note that possessive adjectives are not normally used with parts of the body. Use le, la, l’ or les instead. 1

  • J’ai mal à la main. My hand hurts.

Unlike English, French doesn’t use an apostrophe with possessive adjectives.

English (with apostrophe)French (without apostrophe)
My father’s carLa voiture de mon père
The cat’s tailLa queue du chat
Mary’s dressLa robe de Marie

ça vs. ce

  • ça is more colloquial, general or abstract, always a pronoun and more flexible in informal speech
    • Ça va ? How’s it going?
    • J’aime ça. I like that/it.
    • Ça y est ! That’s it!/There it is.
  • ce is more formal, more specific, can be both adjective and pronoun, follows stricter grammatical rules
    • Ce dont je parle What I’m talking about
    • C’est tout ! That’s all!

Note: dont (meaning whose, of whom, of which, about which) is used to refer to people or things, but its form never changes.

  • les films dont tu parles the films you’re talking about
  • le prix dont il est si fier the prize he’s so proud of


  • ah bon ? really? / is that so?
  • ah mais … yes, but …
  • ah non ! oh no!


le formulaireform
réglerto settle (a formal way of saying “to pay”)
- Réglez à la caisse Pay at the cash desk
- J’ai dû faire la queue à la caisse. I had to queue at the checkout.
devoirmust, to have to / (past participle)
dontof which, of whom
fierADJ. proud